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代词精讲

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代词精讲 1.代词是代替名词的字。 2.代词包括人称代词,所有代词,复合人称代词,不定代词,指示代词,疑问代词,关系代 词和复合关系代词。 人称代词 1.人称代词是有人称区别的代词。 2.人称代词包括第一人称 I,my,me,we,our,us;第二人称:you,your;第三人称 he, his,him,she,her,it,its,they,their,them。 3.人称代词有数的区别,如:I 是单数,we 是复数。 4.人称代词有性的区别,如:he 是阳性,she 是阴性。 5.人称代词有格的区别,如:I 是主格,me 是宾格,my 是所有格。 所有代词 1.所有代词代替人称代词的所有格(所有形容词)和它所修饰的名词, 如: mine, his, hers, its, ours,yours,theirs。 2.所有代词后不可接名词,无论代替单数或复数名词,都用相同形态。 【参见所有形容词】 You've got your trouble; I've got mine.(mine = my trouble) You've got your troubles; I've got mine.(mine = my troubles) 你有你的麻烦,我有我的麻烦。 Ours are as clever as Mr. Brown's and Mr. Green's students. 我们的(学生)和布朗先生及格林先生的学生一样聪明。 Ours is a large country with a long history. 我们的国家是一个具有悠久历史的大国。 复合人称代词 1.复合人称代词又称反身代词,由人称代词+self(单数),selves(复数)构成,表示自己;不定 的复合人称代词是 oneself。 2.复合人称代词的主格和宾格的形式是一致的。 中文:我自己做的。 (主格)I myself did it. (宾格)I did it by myself. 3.复合人称代词的所有格由人称代词的所有格+own 构成;不定的复合人称代词的所有格是 one's own。 【参见人称代词】 I have a house of my own. 我有一所自己的房子。 复合人称代词用法 1.主语与宾语指同一人时,宾语必须用复合人称代词。 中文:他那天伤着他自己了。 (误)He hurt him the other day. (正)He hurt himself the other day. 2.用以加强主语,宾语或补语的语气。 I myself corrected the mistake. 我自己改正的错误。 I saw the president himself. 我看见总统本人了。 3.表示自己所有。

I don't even have my own car. 我甚至没有我自己的汽车。 4.惯用法,如:by oneself(独自),for oneself(为…自己)等。 You should do your homework by yourself. 你应该独立完成功课。 He built a house for himself. 他为他自己建了一所房子。 不定代词 1.不定代词是没有确定的指某人或某物的代词,常用的不定代词有 some,any,one,ones, no one,none,each,both,all,either,neither,other,another,many,few,much,little, most 等。 I took a big apple and he took a small one. 我拿了一个大苹果,他拿了一个小的。 (one 代替 apple,但没有明确的指是那一个。 ) 2.不定形容词 any,some,every 与 one,thing,body 等词可以构成复合的不定代词,这些词 的修饰语一般在后面。 【参见不定形容词】 I have something important to tell you. 我有重要的事要告诉你。 指示代词 1.指示代词是指明一定的人或事物的代词,如:this,that,these,those,such 等。 2.指示代词后不能加名词,如加名词,即为指示形容词。 This is your book. 这是你的书。 This book is yours. 这书是你的。 3.指示代词可用来代替前面的句子。 【参见指示形容词】 Mike came late again. This made the teacher very angry. 麦克又迟到了,这使老师非常生气。 (This 用来代替 Mike came late again。 ) 疑问代词 1.疑问代词是问何人,何物,何者的代词,如:who,whose,whom,which,what 等。 2.疑问代词后不可加名词,如加名词,即为疑问形容词。 【参见疑问形容词】 Whose is this pen? 这笔是谁的? Whose pen is this? 这是谁的钢笔? 关系代词 1.关系代词是兼有代词和连词作用的代词,如:who,whose,whom,which,that,what 等, 可构成定语从句。 【参见定语从句,关系形容词】 He was the man who climbed the leaning tower of Pisa. 他是爬上比萨斜塔的那个人。 He was the man. 他是那个人。 He climbed the leaning tower of Pisa. 他爬上了比萨斜塔。 复合关系代词

1.复合关系代词是由关系代词+ever 构成的,是不论的意思,如:whoever(不论谁), whichever(不论那一个),whomever(不论谁,宾格),whatever(不论什么)等。 2.复合关系代词可以由 no matter+关系代词代替。 【参见关系副词】 Whoever did this, he would be punished. No matter who did this, he would be punished. 不论是谁干的,他都将受到惩罚。 代词误用辨析 1.中文:伦敦的夏天比我家乡的夏天更热。 (误)London is much hotter in summer than my hometown. (正)It is much hotter in London in summer than in my hometown.(用 it 代表气候,天气等。 ) 2.中文:他的书跟我的很不一样。 (误)His book is quite different from me. (正)His book is quite different from mine. mine = my book, ( 应保持比较的双方性质的一致。 ) 3.中文:我有件重要的事告诉你。 (误)I have important something to tell you. (正)I have something important to tell you.(修饰 something,nothing,anything 等不定代词 时,形容词应放在其后。 ) 4.中文:每个学生都应该做他自己的功课。 (误)Every student should do their own homework. (正)Every student should do his own homework.(every student 是单数,其后的代词也用单 数。 ) 5.中文:我喜欢收到别人的来信,但不愿意写信。 (误)I like to receive letters but do not like to write it. (正)I like to receive letters but do not like to write them.(代词的人称与数应与它代替的名词 相同。 ) 6.中文:孩子们和他都还没有吃晚餐。 (误)Neither the children nor he has ever eaten their supper. (正)Neither the children nor he has ever eaten his supper.(neither...nor 是对等相关连词,nor 后面的主语决定后面的谓语动词及代词的形式。 ) 7.中文:布朗太太向她的朋友玛丽和我打招呼。 (误)Mrs. Brown said hello to her friends, Mary and I. (正)Mrs. Brown said hello to her friends, Mary and me. (Mary and me 是宾语 friends 的同位语, 因此用宾格形式。 ) 8.中文:我的两个姊姊都不在这。 (误)None of my two sisters is here. (正)Neither of my two sisters is here.(neither 用于两者的否定;none 用于三者以上的否定。 ) 9.中文:他认识我的两个姊姊。 (误)He knows my both sisters. (正)He knows both my sisters.(both 用在 the,his,my 等修饰语之前。 ) 10.中文:这本书的价格是多少? (误)How much is the price of the book? (正)What is the price of the book?(对价格提问用 what,没有 price 一词时用 how much。 ) 11.中文:我有一本新字典还有几本旧的。 (误)I have a new dictionary and several old one.

(正)I have a new dictionary and several old ones.(代替前面提到过的可数名词,复数要用 ones。 ) 12.中文:安迪,保罗和我共唱一首歌。 (误)I, Andy and Paul sang a song together. (正)Andy, Paul and I sang a song together.(有多个主语或宾语时,I 或 me 在最后。 ) 13.中文:他们很了解我们中国人。 (误)They know our Chinese well. (正)They know us Chinese well.(Chinese 为宾语 us 的同位语。 ) 14.中文:说好英语不容易。 (误)That is not easy to speak good English. (正)It is not easy to speak good English.(it 当形式主语,代替不定式。 )



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